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Last updated:
18/10/2018

What is the Work Capability Assessment?

  1. Overview
  2. What is ESA?
  3. How can I claim?
  4. What is the Work Capability Assessment?
  5. What are the groups of ESA?
  6. What will happen if I don’t go to an interview?
  7. What work am I permitted to do on ESA?
  8. Can I appeal if I think the decision about ESA is wrong?
  9. Next steps

The Work capability assessment

The SSA uses a test called the ‘Work Capability Assessment’ (WCA) to decide if you can get ESA – the WCA has two parts. The first is to fill in a health questionnaire called an ESA50, then you will be asked to go along to a face-to-face assessment.

The WCA process can take at least 13 weeks, and this stage is called the ‘assessment phase’. During this time, you have to send the SSA ‘fit notes’ from your GP saying that you are not well enough to work. If your fit note runs out before the SSA makes a decision about your claim, you will have to get a new one, otherwise your benefit will stop.

The health questionnaire – form ESA50

After your claim begins, you will get an ESA50 form in the post. This is a questionnaire that asks how your illness makes it harder for you to work. You can read more detailed information about the ESA50 questionnaire in our Work Capability Assessment section.

There is a letter with the form that tells you when you have to send it back to the SSA, but you must inform the SSA if you can’t complete the form by that date, and why you need more time. A benefits adviser could help with your application. 

You can get supporting medical evidence from a health professional such as a doctor. Although you don’t have to do this, however, it can help show the SSA that you are not fit to work. 

Ask someone who knows you well in the NHS or social services to write a letter to the SSA to support your claim. This could be your GP, Community Psychiatric Nurse (CPN), Psychiatrist, Social Worker or Support Worker. 

Ask someone who knows you well in the NHS or social services to write a letter to the SSA to support your claim.

The SSA must look at any supporting evidence you give them as they can use this to help them make a decision. Send copies of your evidence and keep the originals somewhere safe, attaching it to the ESA50 or sending it separately if you need to.

The evidence can explain not only how your condition makes it harder for you to work but what would happen to your health if you had to start looking for work, and how you meet the criteria for ESA – a letter that simply states your diagnosis or your symptoms are won’t suffice.

Remember to write the following information on any paperwork you send:

  • Name,
  • Address,
  • National Insurance number, and
  • Claim number, if you know it.

Medical assessment

At your medical assessment, you will see a health professional such as a Nurse, Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist or a Doctor, although this is less likely.

At your medical assessment, you will see a health professional such as a Nurse, Physiotherapist, Occupational Therapist or a Doctor.

If you want to speak to an expert in mental health, make this clear when you fill in the ESA50. This isn’t guaranteed to happen, but the SSA will take it into account.

The health professional will ask you questions about your health and write a report based on what you say – once the SSA have the information they need, they will decide whether you can get ESA.

In rare cases, the SSA might decide that you meet the criteria for ESA based on just the ESA50 and your medical evidence and in which case, you will not need to go for a medical assessment.

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Within this subject

  1. Overview
  2. What is ESA?
  3. How can I claim?
  4. What is the Work Capability Assessment?
  5. What are the groups of ESA?
  6. What will happen if I don’t go to an interview?
  7. What work am I permitted to do on ESA?
  8. Can I appeal if I think the decision about ESA is wrong?
  9. Next steps
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